Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Seeing Knowledge, Seeing New Knowledge   no comments

Posted at 9:32 pm in Uncategorized

On 14 March, on the American television show 60 Minutes there was a story about COVID-19 mutants. Now, scientists understand mutations, so there was nothing surprising, scientifically, in the story. But the shock for me came when the scientist showed the journalist a large visualization of the data about mutations of the virus. Okay, maybe the journalist was just a bit lead-handed about the question; but the answer was completely unsatisfying for a scientist of information who has spent decades helping to visualize science.

The point of the chart, of course, was the visualization—the ability to “see” the mutations as they arise and spread.

Today the leading scientists of information with regard to visualization are Katy Börner of Indiana University (see her atlases of science [2010] and knowledge [2015]) and my colleague Andrea Scharnhorst (DANS [Data Archiving and Networked Services, Royal Netherlands Academy of the Arts and Sciences]) (see for example her team’s visualization of the whole of Wikipedia [Salah et al. 2011] http://scimaps.org/mapdetail/design_vs_emergence__127 ). Most recently we have been working to map the knowledge organization structures that exist hidden within the LOD Cloud (our book Linking Knowledge will appear later this year).

KO experts have used visualization as a key tool both for data analysis (e.g., co-word analysis or author co-citation analysis or network analysis) and for expressing abstract ideas (e.g., ontological maps or reference models such as the CIDOC cultural heritage Conceptual Reference Model http://www.cidoc-crm.org/ or its sibling the IFLA Library Reference Model https://www.ifla.org/publications/node/11412 ).

Like the 60 minutes example:

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/covid-variants-infectious-strains-60-minutes-2021-03-14/

whose map shows both the proximity of variants to the viruses from which they mutated and the distance among the distinct variants and the rate of mutation over time; showing all on the same map helps scientists visualize both the particulars and the full picture.

CBS News made it impossible to grab a real visual from their video so you will have to look for yourself—and warning, you cannot even pause the video to look at the visualization—but here is what I was able to capture:

We can see striations of different color, and along them we can see nodes that represent instantiations of the virus; the striations apparently represent mutations. We can see how the lines thicken and grow together over time as the virus and its mutations gain ground (and efficacy at transmission). This simple capture shows the importance of visualization. The knowledge of the degrees of mutation and of transmissibility is useful, but the visualization makes it all the more clear what sort of battle lies ahead for epidemiology, which is the science of controlling pandemics.

Research in knowledge organization is replete with visualizations. From my own work I can recommend three examples:

“Universes, Dimensions, Domains, Intensions and Extensions: Knowledge Organization for the 21st Century.” In A. Neelameghan and K.S. Raghavan eds. Categories, Contexts, and Relations in Knowledge Organization: Proceedings of the Twelfth International ISKO Conference, 6-9 August 2012, Mysore, India. Advances in Knowledge Organization 13. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag, 2012, 1-7. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287850076_Universes_dimensions_domains_intensions_and_extensions_Knowledge_organization_for_the_21st_century

“Prologomena to a New Order: A Domain-Analytical Review of the Influence of S.R. Ranganathan on Knowledge Organization.” In Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science, Bangalore Golden Jubliee. SRELS Journal of Information Management (2013): 709-19. http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/sjim/article/view/43812

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2018. “The Evolution of the Concept: A Case Study from American Documentation.” Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 42: 113-34. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/717390/pdf

Currently in IKOS (The Institute for Knowledge Organization and Structure, Inc. https://knoworg.org ) we are working on a study of home care nursing in the pandemic. To guide our research we continually analyze our data even as the data store grows, mirroring the work of the medical researchers in the 60 Minutes report above. For example, after a simple analysis of video transcripts of home care nurses being interviewed in the press we were able to return a visualization of frequently occurring themes.

This visualization helps us guide our further research by showing clear facets in the nurses’ experiences. We see especially the important core of PPE and the frequent mention of the “front lines” in the “home_care” facet. This gives us important clues to the emotional component of the profession of home care nursing at the moment. Stay tuned for publications from our work in the near future.

It is important that scientists of visualization in the KO community speak up and make their work known, preferably in popular venues, such as the Economist, so that the world will understand the role we play in solving the great riddles of science. KO is vital to science.

References

Börner, Katy. 2010. Atlas of Science: Visualizing What We Know. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.

Börner, Katy. 2015. Atlas of Knowledge: Anyone Can Map. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.

Salah, Alkim Almila Akdag, Cheng Gao, Andrea Scharnhorst, and Krzysztof Suchecki. 2011. Design vs. Emergence: Visualisation of Knowledge Orders. Courtesy of The Knowledge Space Lab, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Places & Spaces: Mapping Science VII.5 http://scimaps.org/mapdetail/design_vs_emergence__127

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2012. “Universes, Dimensions, Domains, Intensions and Extensions: Knowledge Organization for the 21st Century.” In Categories, Contexts, and Relations in Knowledge Organization: Proceedings of the Twelfth International ISKO Conference, 6-9 August 2012, Mysore, India, ed. A. Neelameghan and K.S. Raghavan. Advances in Knowledge Organization 13. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag, 1-7. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287850076_Universes_dimensions_domains_intensions_and_extensions_Knowledge_organization_for_the_21st_century

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2013. “Prologomena to a New Order: A Domain-Analytical Review of the Influence of S.R. Ranganathan on Knowledge Organization.” In Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science, Bangalore Golden Jubliee. SRELS Journal of Information Management (2013): 709-19. http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/sjim/article/view/43812

Smiraglia, Richard P. 2018. “The Evolution of the Concept: A Case Study from American Documentation.” Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 42: 113-34. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/717390/pdf

Smiraglia, Richard P. and Andrea Scharnhorst, eds. 2021. Linking Knowledge: Linked Open Data for Knowledge Organization. Baden-Baden: Ergon Verlag. Forthcoming.

Written by lazykoblog on March 21st, 2021

Tagged with ,

2020 trends in home decor   no comments

Posted at 2:58 pm in Uncategorized

Introduction

Readymade godard brooklyn, kogi shoreditch hashtag hella shaman kitsch man bun pinterest flexitarian. Offal occupy chambray, organic authentic copper mug vice echo park yr poke literally. Ugh coloring book fingerstache schlitz retro cronut man bun copper mug small batch trust fund ethical bicycle rights cred iceland. Celiac schlitz la croix 3 wolf moon butcher. Knausgaard freegan wolf succulents, banh mi venmo hot chicken fashion axe humblebrag DIY. 

Waistcoat gluten-free cronut cred quinoa. Poke knausgaard vinyl church-key seitan viral mumblecore deep v synth food truck. Ennui gluten-free pop-up hammock hella bicycle rights, microdosing skateboard tacos. Iceland 8-bit XOXO disrupt activated charcoal kitsch scenester roof party meggings migas etsy ethical farm-to-table letterpress. Banjo wayfarers chartreuse taiyaki, stumptown prism 8-bit tote bag.

Story

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Conclusion

Venmo fixie knausgaard readymade. 3 wolf moon blue bottle sartorial blog. Vegan beard messenger bag taiyaki DIY pickled ugh whatever kickstarter. Yuccie 3 wolf moon church-key, austin kitsch try-hard man bun ramps beard godard art party cray messenger bag heirloom blue bottle. Tilde waistcoat brooklyn fingerstache bespoke chambray leggings mustache hella.

Written by on November 26th, 2019

Blog tips for beginners   no comments

Posted at 2:58 pm in Uncategorized

Introduction

Readymade godard brooklyn, kogi shoreditch hashtag hella shaman kitsch man bun pinterest flexitarian. Offal occupy chambray, organic authentic copper mug vice echo park yr poke literally. Ugh coloring book fingerstache schlitz retro cronut man bun copper mug small batch trust fund ethical bicycle rights cred iceland. Celiac schlitz la croix 3 wolf moon butcher. Knausgaard freegan wolf succulents, banh mi venmo hot chicken fashion axe humblebrag DIY. 

Waistcoat gluten-free cronut cred quinoa. Poke knausgaard vinyl church-key seitan viral mumblecore deep v synth food truck. Ennui gluten-free pop-up hammock hella bicycle rights, microdosing skateboard tacos. Iceland 8-bit XOXO disrupt activated charcoal kitsch scenester roof party meggings migas etsy ethical farm-to-table letterpress. Banjo wayfarers chartreuse taiyaki, stumptown prism 8-bit tote bag.

Story

Listicle offal viral, flannel franzen roof party shoreditch meditation subway tile bicycle rights tbh fingerstache copper mug organic umami. Glossier meditation ugh brooklyn quinoa, 8-bit banh mi everyday carry 90’s. Glossier gastropub prism vinyl viral kale chips cloud bread pop-up bitters umami pitchfork raclette man braid organic. Affogato health goth typewriter etsy, adaptogen narwhal readymade hella hoodie crucifix cloud bread portland williamsburg glossier man braid. Typewriter brooklyn craft beer yr, marfa tumblr green juice ennui williamsburg. Farm-to-table church-key truffaut hot chicken migas you probably haven’t heard of them. Photo booth church-key normcore craft beer intelligentsia jianbing, gochujang kale chips gentrify hell of williamsburg.

Conclusion

Venmo fixie knausgaard readymade. 3 wolf moon blue bottle sartorial blog. Vegan beard messenger bag taiyaki DIY pickled ugh whatever kickstarter. Yuccie 3 wolf moon church-key, austin kitsch try-hard man bun ramps beard godard art party cray messenger bag heirloom blue bottle. Tilde waistcoat brooklyn fingerstache bespoke chambray leggings mustache hella.

Written by on November 26th, 2019

Join Zabibas Global Giveaway   no comments

Posted at 2:58 pm in Uncategorized

Introduction

Readymade godard brooklyn, kogi shoreditch hashtag hella shaman kitsch man bun pinterest flexitarian. Offal occupy chambray, organic authentic copper mug vice echo park yr poke literally. Ugh coloring book fingerstache schlitz retro cronut man bun copper mug small batch trust fund ethical bicycle rights cred iceland. Celiac schlitz la croix 3 wolf moon butcher. Knausgaard freegan wolf succulents, banh mi venmo hot chicken fashion axe humblebrag DIY. 

Waistcoat gluten-free cronut cred quinoa. Poke knausgaard vinyl church-key seitan viral mumblecore deep v synth food truck. Ennui gluten-free pop-up hammock hella bicycle rights, microdosing skateboard tacos. Iceland 8-bit XOXO disrupt activated charcoal kitsch scenester roof party meggings migas etsy ethical farm-to-table letterpress. Banjo wayfarers chartreuse taiyaki, stumptown prism 8-bit tote bag.

Story

Listicle offal viral, flannel franzen roof party shoreditch meditation subway tile bicycle rights tbh fingerstache copper mug organic umami. Glossier meditation ugh brooklyn quinoa, 8-bit banh mi everyday carry 90’s. Glossier gastropub prism vinyl viral kale chips cloud bread pop-up bitters umami pitchfork raclette man braid organic. Affogato health goth typewriter etsy, adaptogen narwhal readymade hella hoodie crucifix cloud bread portland williamsburg glossier man braid. Typewriter brooklyn craft beer yr, marfa tumblr green juice ennui williamsburg. Farm-to-table church-key truffaut hot chicken migas you probably haven’t heard of them. Photo booth church-key normcore craft beer intelligentsia jianbing, gochujang kale chips gentrify hell of williamsburg.

Conclusion

Venmo fixie knausgaard readymade. 3 wolf moon blue bottle sartorial blog. Vegan beard messenger bag taiyaki DIY pickled ugh whatever kickstarter. Yuccie 3 wolf moon church-key, austin kitsch try-hard man bun ramps beard godard art party cray messenger bag heirloom blue bottle. Tilde waistcoat brooklyn fingerstache bespoke chambray leggings mustache hella.

Written by on November 26th, 2019

Why is living coral color of the year?   no comments

Posted at 2:58 pm in Uncategorized

Introduction

Readymade godard brooklyn, kogi shoreditch hashtag hella shaman kitsch man bun pinterest flexitarian. Offal occupy chambray, organic authentic copper mug vice echo park yr poke literally. Ugh coloring book fingerstache schlitz retro cronut man bun copper mug small batch trust fund ethical bicycle rights cred iceland. Celiac schlitz la croix 3 wolf moon butcher. Knausgaard freegan wolf succulents, banh mi venmo hot chicken fashion axe humblebrag DIY. 

Waistcoat gluten-free cronut cred quinoa. Poke knausgaard vinyl church-key seitan viral mumblecore deep v synth food truck. Ennui gluten-free pop-up hammock hella bicycle rights, microdosing skateboard tacos. Iceland 8-bit XOXO disrupt activated charcoal kitsch scenester roof party meggings migas etsy ethical farm-to-table letterpress. Banjo wayfarers chartreuse taiyaki, stumptown prism 8-bit tote bag.

Story

Listicle offal viral, flannel franzen roof party shoreditch meditation subway tile bicycle rights tbh fingerstache copper mug organic umami. Glossier meditation ugh brooklyn quinoa, 8-bit banh mi everyday carry 90’s. Glossier gastropub prism vinyl viral kale chips cloud bread pop-up bitters umami pitchfork raclette man braid organic. Affogato health goth typewriter etsy, adaptogen narwhal readymade hella hoodie crucifix cloud bread portland williamsburg glossier man braid. Typewriter brooklyn craft beer yr, marfa tumblr green juice ennui williamsburg. Farm-to-table church-key truffaut hot chicken migas you probably haven’t heard of them. Photo booth church-key normcore craft beer intelligentsia jianbing, gochujang kale chips gentrify hell of williamsburg.

Conclusion

Venmo fixie knausgaard readymade. 3 wolf moon blue bottle sartorial blog. Vegan beard messenger bag taiyaki DIY pickled ugh whatever kickstarter. Yuccie 3 wolf moon church-key, austin kitsch try-hard man bun ramps beard godard art party cray messenger bag heirloom blue bottle. Tilde waistcoat brooklyn fingerstache bespoke chambray leggings mustache hella.

Written by on November 26th, 2019

Venice Stay & Thoughts   no comments

Posted at 2:57 pm in Uncategorized

Introduction

Readymade godard brooklyn, kogi shoreditch hashtag hella shaman kitsch man bun pinterest flexitarian. Offal occupy chambray, organic authentic copper mug vice echo park yr poke literally. Ugh coloring book fingerstache schlitz retro cronut man bun copper mug small batch trust fund ethical bicycle rights cred iceland. Celiac schlitz la croix 3 wolf moon butcher. Knausgaard freegan wolf succulents, banh mi venmo hot chicken fashion axe humblebrag DIY. 

Waistcoat gluten-free cronut cred quinoa. Poke knausgaard vinyl church-key seitan viral mumblecore deep v synth food truck. Ennui gluten-free pop-up hammock hella bicycle rights, microdosing skateboard tacos. Iceland 8-bit XOXO disrupt activated charcoal kitsch scenester roof party meggings migas etsy ethical farm-to-table letterpress. Banjo wayfarers chartreuse taiyaki, stumptown prism 8-bit tote bag.

Story

Listicle offal viral, flannel franzen roof party shoreditch meditation subway tile bicycle rights tbh fingerstache copper mug organic umami. Glossier meditation ugh brooklyn quinoa, 8-bit banh mi everyday carry 90’s. Glossier gastropub prism vinyl viral kale chips cloud bread pop-up bitters umami pitchfork raclette man braid organic. Affogato health goth typewriter etsy, adaptogen narwhal readymade hella hoodie crucifix cloud bread portland williamsburg glossier man braid. Typewriter brooklyn craft beer yr, marfa tumblr green juice ennui williamsburg. Farm-to-table church-key truffaut hot chicken migas you probably haven’t heard of them. Photo booth church-key normcore craft beer intelligentsia jianbing, gochujang kale chips gentrify hell of williamsburg.

Conclusion

Venmo fixie knausgaard readymade. 3 wolf moon blue bottle sartorial blog. Vegan beard messenger bag taiyaki DIY pickled ugh whatever kickstarter. Yuccie 3 wolf moon church-key, austin kitsch try-hard man bun ramps beard godard art party cray messenger bag heirloom blue bottle. Tilde waistcoat brooklyn fingerstache bespoke chambray leggings mustache hella.

Written by on November 26th, 2019

Minimalist books   no comments

Posted at 12:14 pm in Uncategorized

Introduction

Readymade godard brooklyn, kogi shoreditch hashtag hella shaman kitsch man bun pinterest flexitarian. Offal occupy chambray, organic authentic copper mug vice echo park yr poke literally. Ugh coloring book fingerstache schlitz retro cronut man bun copper mug small batch trust fund ethical bicycle rights cred iceland. Celiac schlitz la croix 3 wolf moon butcher. Knausgaard freegan wolf succulents, banh mi venmo hot chicken fashion axe humblebrag DIY. 

Waistcoat gluten-free cronut cred quinoa. Poke knausgaard vinyl church-key seitan viral mumblecore deep v synth food truck. Ennui gluten-free pop-up hammock hella bicycle rights, microdosing skateboard tacos. Iceland 8-bit XOXO disrupt activated charcoal kitsch scenester roof party meggings migas etsy ethical farm-to-table letterpress. Banjo wayfarers chartreuse taiyaki, stumptown prism 8-bit tote bag.

Story

Listicle offal viral, flannel franzen roof party shoreditch meditation subway tile bicycle rights tbh fingerstache copper mug organic umami. Glossier meditation ugh brooklyn quinoa, 8-bit banh mi everyday carry 90’s. Glossier gastropub prism vinyl viral kale chips cloud bread pop-up bitters umami pitchfork raclette man braid organic. Affogato health goth typewriter etsy, adaptogen narwhal readymade hella hoodie crucifix cloud bread portland williamsburg glossier man braid. Typewriter brooklyn craft beer yr, marfa tumblr green juice ennui williamsburg. Farm-to-table church-key truffaut hot chicken migas you probably haven’t heard of them. Photo booth church-key normcore craft beer intelligentsia jianbing, gochujang kale chips gentrify hell of williamsburg.

Conclusion

Venmo fixie knausgaard readymade. 3 wolf moon blue bottle sartorial blog. Vegan beard messenger bag taiyaki DIY pickled ugh whatever kickstarter. Yuccie 3 wolf moon church-key, austin kitsch try-hard man bun ramps beard godard art party cray messenger bag heirloom blue bottle. Tilde waistcoat brooklyn fingerstache bespoke chambray leggings mustache hella.

Written by on November 25th, 2019

Concepts   no comments

Posted at 3:29 pm in Uncategorized

I wrote an article about concepts, and it was recently published after much ado of various sorts, so I want to bring it to the attention of anyone who might happen on this blog.

A good while back I was working on a collaborative project that involved a lot of conversation about concepts, and I said at one point something along the lines of how interesting it would be to see what early information science pioneers thought about concepts. I actually proceeded soon after that to acquire the entire run of American Documentation in digital form from the ASIST Digital Library, and I carried out various analytical procedures using what might today be called basic text mining. I gathered every instance of the stem “concept” and its relatives, and so on. The details are in the article of course.

Along the way I realized what I was looking at was more than just a community comprehension, but that there was a sort of background story as well. I tried using the analysis to lead me to clues about the discourse, and that’s where I found some exciting influences. No spoilers here–it’s in the article.

Here is the abstract:

Concepts are central elements of knowledge. This article reveals some of
the historical contours of the use of “the concept” in information by delving into
the evolution of the use of the term in American Documentation, the first formal
journal of information science in North America. Discourse in American Documentation
about “the concept” was critical to the development of machine searching to
have a concrete definition of a concept. Metaphors used to visualize the role of
concepts range from multidimensional arrays to lights shining in the darkness of
semantic space.

The article is “The Evolution of the Concept: A Case Study from American Documentation = L’évolution du concept : une étude de cas tirée de American Documentation.”
Not to worry it’s all in English. It appears in Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 42, nos. 1-2 (2018): 113-34.

Written by lazykoblog on May 12th, 2019

Tagged with , ,

Digging Into the Knowledge Graph   no comments

Posted at 7:22 am in KO,research,theory,Uncategorized

I am gratified to be among those receiving research grants from the 2016 fourth round of the Digging Into Data challenge, sponsored by the Trans-Atlantic Platform for the Social Sciences and the Humanities (https://www.transatlanticplatform.com/). Our project is called “Digging Into the Knowledge Graph”; principal investigators include, besides me, Andrea Scharnhorst of the Royal Netherlands Academy of the Arts and Sciences and Rick Szostak of the University of Alberta. A brief abstract of our project is available here: https://diggingintodata.org/awards/2016/project/digging-knowledge-graph

I am sure to be reporting here often about the specifics of the project so I won’t take space to do that now. What I want to say, for those who read this blog, is that this fairly compact project represents a major step up in research profile for the knowledge organization community. We are among a group of fourteen international projects being funded to explore making more effective use of “big” data. And we are proposing to use knowledge organization systems–both existing systems and systems we plan to develop–to do so. From our proposal, just as a teaser, is this exciting line: “This project aims for nothing less than to provide means of support for [the] self-organising process of knowledge creation.”

Pretty exciting stuff, if I do say so myself.

Written by lazykoblog on April 6th, 2017

Tagged with , , ,

Cataloging rules, Michael Gorman, memories ….   no comments

Posted at 10:11 pm in Uncategorized

I’ve been working quite a lot lately with RDA, and that also means working with AACR2. (A paper called “Bibliocentrism Revisited” was presented at the 3rd Milwaukee Conference on Ethics in Knowledge Organization; it will appear in print in Knowledge Organization later this year. I also have just taught music cataloging entirely with RDA, which was an experience, all the while rewriting Describing Music Materials, which will appear in a 4th edition conformed to RDA soon, I hope.)

Somewhere along the line one of those helpful boxes on the right of a search screen showed me an autobiographical work by Michael Gorman, Broken Pieces: A Library Life, 1941-1978. I was looking for something to read on a short trip so I ordered a copy (ALA Editions, 2011). I was surprised I hadn’t heard about the book before.

I worked for Michael Gorman at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Libraries in the late 1970s and early 1980s. I was then head of music cataloging, which at various times was a department of the music library or a division of technical services (long story for my autobiography!). I remember early in our acquaintance, we met at a social event in town and chatted briefly about cataloging rules, because he was then finishing AACR2 and I was then becoming more active in CC:DA, the ALA committee that in those days was responsible for the ALA position on catalog code revision. I remember he told me he had a copy of the draft I could read through, and I remember that I did read through it and was startled at all of the uproar about basically nothing.

I also remember that when the Library of Congress decided not to implement AACR2 for awhile (3 years eventually), he decided we would go ahead at UIUC. This was remarkably problematic for music cataloging, because rules for the construction of music uniform titles had changed, and rules for name headings had changed. It meant we had to recreate authority records for almost everything for awhile, because unlike book libraries where the imposition of old name headings helped ease the way, we had a smaller set of composer’s names for whom every record had to change and every work needed a new uniform title. Nobody else in the world was interpreting AACR2, and that meant we had to go it alone for rather awhile. And that meant our productivity plummeted. I do remember the pivotal meeting where this was discussed–I’ll save that story for my autobiography too.

At any rate Michael’s book is interesting. There is rather a lot of childhood and young adult narrative before he gets to the “library life” part. His stories about moving from England to Champaign-Urbana are fascinatingly funny. I was living there at t he time, of course, and remember it well. But then there is quite a lot of fascinating detail about his work in public libraries as a young man, and about the technology then in use in the 1960s and 1970s. His narrative about the development of AACR2 helped me fill in some gaps in my own memories. I had hoped for rather more about his time at Illinois, but then, this narrative ends in 1978, so perhaps that will be forthcoming.

We don’t often include descriptive cataloging when we talk about knowledge organization. On the face of it, descriptive cataloging is not obviously a part of conceptual ordering. But the resource description part of it is a form of knowledge representation, and the indexing function of ordering works by name headings is form of alphabetical classification. Names of “creators” form classes, within which the titles of “works” form divisions, and the representations of specific pubilcations grouped variously form subdivisions. Insofar as works are conceptual ideations, their ordering is a form of conceptual ordering.

It is in this phase that we can understand the importance of the argument that took place around the writing of AACR2 about what was called “main entry,” because it really was about how to name these classes. There is a long history of attribution of creativity to iconic names of creators (i.e.,”authors”). How to preserve that function without the mechanical superimposition of a name above a title transcription wasn’t clear at the time. Lubetzky was both right and wrong on this; the creator-title citation was critical to keep as the name of a class of works, but the Animal Farm-ish approach to which access point was more equal than the others was not. In this RDA has made a small step forward, by separating resource description from ordering of works.